Q.5 In 1659 at Pratapgarh fort Shivaji killed his opponent sent by Adilshah, with iron Tiger-claw. Shivaji made sure that he is buried with full military honour and his mausoleum still exists at the foothills of Pratapgad fort.
Afzal Khan. He was 7' tall and was almost about to kill Shivaji with his dagger but Shivaji wore an armour inside his dress and inflicted wounds on Afzal Khan with his iron tiger-claws. After this Afzal Khan's bodyguard almost killed Shivaji, but Shivaji's bodyguard Jiva Mahala saved him by chopping the attacker's hand and finally killed him.
This incident gave birth to a Marathi idiom - Shivaji's bodyguard Jiva Mahala meaning Shivaji lived because of Jiva.
Q.6 Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan, his maternal uncle to seize control from Shivaji. Shaista Khan had huge resources and captured many forts and city of Pune and made Lal Mahal his residence. He disallowed Marathas from entering Pune. But by some means Shivaji entered the city with 400 men and attacked him by which Shaista Khan lost three of his fingers and his son.
By what means Shivaji entered the city of Pune?
Disguised as a wedding procession Shivaji with his 400 men entered the city of Pune.
Shaista Khan was transferred to Bengal after that where he served for next 20 years or so under Aurangzeb. and is known for raising Mughal Navy with help of Porugese and was a terror for the Arakan pirates and eliminated them. So there is a Bengali word called Shaista meaning to control or fix someone for good.
Q.7 After Shaita Khan's defeat and and fall of city Surat by Shivaji, Aurangzeb sent Jai Singh I to defeat Shivaji. With enormous resources Jai Singh could win many forts and finally made Shivaji come to terms of Aurangzeb. They signed treay of Purandar by which Shivaji fought alongside of Jai Sing against Bijapur and Shivaji's son became sardar in Aurangzeb's court.
What was his name and name the favourite south Indian dish that is believed to ha named after him.
Sambhaji Bhosle. And as myth goes, Sambhaji visited his cousin Shahuji, who ruled Tanjavore at that time and was preparing a dish "Amti" but due to lack of prescribed ingredients he used tamarind instead of Kokum and Tuvar dal instead of Moong. And voila Sambar was made and named after the guest of honour.
Vaghya, Shivaji's pet dog. Legends say that Vaghya jumped into the burning pyres of Shivaji's funeral.
Q.10 Shivaji had a council of 8 ministers called Ashtapradhan that administered the Maratha Empire. And the most important of these was the Prime Minister called "Pantpradhan". With time this post became hereditary and it became the de-facto head of the Maratha empire. By what other familiar name do we know this post?
Q.12 One of the earliest instances of this kind of warfare was seen in Peninsular wars where French Empire fought with the allied powers of Spain, Portugal and England. Also to be noted that similar style was embraced by Mao Zedong in China and North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh and also Che Guevara used it in Latin America. But Shivaji took up this form of warfare much before. what are we talking about?
Guerilla Warfare. It was called Shiva sutra or ganimi kavaHe, which included various tactics of guerilla warfare and commando action. Ganimi kava in Marathi means Enemy trickery.